[SOLVED] pro-arguments, data, warrant, backing
Your final essay must have the following components (they may appear in any order):
brief historical context, causes and effects, pro-arguments, data, warrant, backing,
counterarguments, refutation, concession; in addition to a thorough introduction (start of paper) and conclusion (end of paper) paragraph.
Your topic must address a cultural stagnancy (social injustice; social unrest) and a cultural progression (possible or hypothetical solution).
You must use Pico Iyer’s The Art of Stillness or Alain de Button’s The Art of Travel in at least 2 body paragraphs.
You may use them as pro-arguments or counterarguments.
In other words, (1) you do not have to agree with them to use them as a source; and
(2) you are welcome to analyze their weaknesses, ineffective use of rhetorical devices, commitment of logical fallacies, and cultural blindspots.
Your final essay must have a total of at least 10 academic, credible, sources within the last 20 years.
Research: You are welcome to
(1) re-use any sources from Essay 1, 2, or 3;
(2) perform new research for additional sources.
A credible source (Links to an external site.) must be peer reviewed; come from a scholarly or academic journal; must have an author and date of publication; must have their own Works Cited or References or Bibliography pages; must be from <.org>; <.edu>; <.gov>;
Use Google Scholar (Links to an external site.) to sources. Only use free full text articles Do not pay for articles.
Do not Frankenstein your Final Project: You will want to make use of the essays produced for the first three essay assignments in constructing this essay, revised to make up a coherent whole and according to the changes in your position discovered in your research. You CANNOT simply copy and paste these essays together for the final version, but revise and reorganize them into a coherent, cohesive, argument, including only those parts consistent with the final essay’s argument and purpose.
When you submit any final draft on Canvas for this class, a built-in-application called “turnitin” scans your writing to check for plagiarism, and quoting matches from online sources and textual evidence from main text. The goal for Essay 4 is to only match 60-70% of all your old papers (Essay 1, 2, 3). In other words, you should write 30-40% of new content for the final project.
Pro-arguments: Source to support your thesis: Data, Warrant, Backing.
Data: 1st source to support your thesis. Evidence gathered to support the claim. Provide summary, background information, and context of the social injustice.
Warrant: (also referred to as a bridge): 2nd source to support your thesis. Explanation of why or how the data supports your claim. Discuss immediate and remote consequences of this ongoing injustice.
Backing (also referred to as the foundation): 3rd source to support your thesis. Additional logic or reasoning that may be necessary to support the warrant.
Counterargument: Define and present the source’s objective thesis. Provide a neutral reporting of the source’s argument against yours own. What rhetorical appeals (intertextuality, ethos, pathos, logos, kairos) does the source use effectively to gain followers? A counterargument differs from a refutation. When a writer presents a counterargument, it acknowledges the opposing perspective’s viewpoints or evidence for taking a given position. Do not point out the counterargument’s weaknesses, blindspots, and shortcomings.
In other words,”Some annotations merely summarize the source. What are the main arguments? What is the point of this book or article? What topics are covered? If someone asked what this article/book is about, what would you say? The length of your annotations will determine how detailed your summary is” (Purdue Online Writing Lab).
Refutation: A refutation, on the other hand, disproves the opposing arguments. What rhetorical appeals (intertextuality, ethos, pathos, logos, kairos) did the source use poorly, ineffectively? In other words, a refutation points out weaknesses and logical fallacies that an opposing argument commits, or highlights what an opposing arguments fails to address. Prove why the source is wrong: identify the source’s logical fallacies. How can you fix the source’s blindspots and/or oversights? What are the consequences for the demographic(s) that your counterargument fails to serve, address, and/or consider? In other words, build a refutation of its argument, exposing its incorrect assumptions, errors in logic or fact, or reasons that its argument may be biased, carefully supporting your own position with research sources with which you agree. This refutation should be relevant to the argument you are constructing so that you can use it in your final essay, but could focus on whether or not this issue is actually a problem, what the causes of the problem are, or on a different solution to the problem. Your refutation should be directed against a counterargument source.
In other words,”After summarizing a source, it may be helpful to evaluate it. Is it a useful source? How does it compare with other sources in your bibliography? Is the information reliable? Is this source biased or objective? What is the goal of this source?” (Purdue Online Writing Lab).
Concession: Reach a (hypothetical/ metaphorical) compromise with this counterargument. Remember, a concession is a conceding argument, yielding, or compromising in some way; albeit, grudgingly or unwillingly.
In other words,”Once you’ve summarized and assessed a source, you need to ask how it fits into your research. Was this source helpful to you? How does it help you shape your argument? How can you use this source in your research project? Has it changed how you think about your topic?” (Purdue Online Writing Lab).
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